Samannaphala Sutta

SAMANNAPHALA SUTTA
(The Fruits of the Life of a Samana)
TEN SUTTAS FROM DIGHA NIKAYA
BURMA PITAKA ASSOCIATION
1984
 
 
150. Thus have I heard:

At one time, the Bhagava was residing in Rajagaha at the mango grove of Jivaka, the adopted son of the Prince (Abhaya), together with a large company of bhikkhus, numbering twelve hundred and fifty.

At that time King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, was resting on the upper terrace of his palace with a retinue of ministers, on the night of the fasting day. the fullmoon day of the month at the end of the four-month rainy season when the white lotus bloomed.

On that day of fasting, King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, made a solemn utterance thus:

"Pleasant, indeed, is the moonlit night, friends! Beautiful, indeed, is the moonlit night, friends! Fair to behold, indeed, is the moonlit night, friends* Lovely, indeed, is the moonlit night, friends! Remarkable, indeed, is the moonlit night', friends! Which samana or brahmana shall I attend on today? Which samana or brahmana can make my (troubled) mind clear and calm when I attend on him?"

{* Remarkable, by illumining the paths of the heavenly bodies, according to the Commentary.}

151. When King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, had made this utterance, a certain minister addressed him thus:

"Your Majesty! There is this Purana Kassapa,

who has a group of disciples, with his own sect, being the teacher of his sect, reputed and well-known, the founder of a school of thought, acclaimed by many as virtuous, ripe with experience, having spent long years as an ascetic, with knowledge of the olden days, and far advanced in age.

Let Your Majesty attend on that Purana Kassapa. If Your Majesty should attend on him, your mind might become clear and calm."

King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, remained silent.

152. Another of the ministers addressed King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, thus:

"Your Majesty! There is this Makkhali Gosala,

who has a group of disciples, with his own sect, being the teacher of his sect, reputed and well-known, the founder of a school of thought, acclaimed by many as virtuous, ripe with experience, having spent long years as an ascetic, with knowledge of the olden days, and far advanced in age.

Let Your Majesty attend on that Makkhali Gosala. If Your Majesty should attend on him, your mind might become clear and calm."

King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, remained silent.

153. Another of the ministers addressed King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, thus:

"Your Majesty! There is this Ajita Kesakambala,

who has a group of disciples, with his own sect, being the teacher of his sect, reputed and well-known, the founder of a school of thought, acclaimed by many as virtuous, ripe with experience, having spent long years as an ascetic, with knowledge of the olden days, and far advanced in age.

Let Your Majesty attend on that Ajita Kesakambala. If Your Majesty should attend on him, your mind might become clear and calm."

King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, remained silent.

154. Another of the ministers addressed King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, thus:

"Your Majesty! There is this Pakudha Kaccayana,

who has a group of disciples, with his own sect, being the teacher of his sect, reputed and well-known, the founder of a school of thought, acclaimed by many as virtuous, ripe with experience, having spent long years as an ascetic, with knowledge of the olden days, and far advanced in age.

Let Your Majesty attend on that Pakudha Kaccayana. If Your Majesty should attend on him, your mind might become clear and calm."

King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, remained silent.

155. Another of the ministers addressed King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, thus:

"Your Majesty! There is this Sancaya Belatthaputta,

who has a group of disciples, with his own sect, being the teacher of his sect, reputed and well-known, the founder of a school of thought, acclaimed by many as virtuous, ripe with experience, having spent long years as an ascetic, with knowledge of the olden days, and far advanced in age.

Let Your Majesty attend on that Sancaya Belatthaputta. If Your Majesty should attend on him, your mind might become clear and calm."

King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, remained silent.

156. Another of the ministers addressed King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, thus:

"Your Majesty! There is this Nigantha Nataputta,

who has a group of disciples, with his own sect, being the teacher of his sect, reputed and well-known, the founder of a school of thought, acclaimed by many as virtuous, ripe with experience, having spent long years as an ascetic, with knowledge of the olden days, and far advanced in age.

Let Your Majesty attend on that Nigantha Nataputta. If Your Majesty should attend on him, your mind might become clear and calm."

King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, remained silent.

2. Concerning Jivaka, adopted son of a Prince

157. At that time, Jivaka, the adopted son of the Prince (Abhaya), was seated in silence, not far from King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, who then asked: "Friend Jivaka! Why do you remain silent ?"

"Your Majesty! (said Jivaka,) "The Exalted One, the Homage-Worthy, the Perfectly Self-Enlightened, is now dwelling in our mango grove with a large company of bhikkhus, numbering twelve hundred and fifty. His fame has spread far and wide in this way:

'It has been said of the Bhagava that he is worthy of special veneration (Araham); that he truly comprehends the dhammas by his own intellect and insight (Sammasambuddha); that he possesses supreme knowledge and the perfect practice of morality (Vijjacaranasampanna); that he speaks only what is beneficial and true (Sugata); that he knows all the three lokas* (Lokavidu): that he is incomparable in taming those who deserve to be tamed (Anuttaropurisadammasarathi); that he is the Teacher of devas and men (Satthadevamanussanam); that he is the Enlightened One, knowing and teaching the Four Noble Truths (Buddha); and that he is the Most Exalted (Bhagava).'

"Let Your Majesty attend on the Bhagava, and if you should attend on him, your mind might become clear and calm."

{* The three lokas are: the animate world (Sattaloka), the inanimate world ( Okasaloka ) and the world of the conditioned (Sankharaloka)}.

158. "If that be so, Friend Jivaka, make the riding elephants ready."

Saying "Very well, Your Majesty!" to King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, Jivaka, the adopted son of the Prince (Abhaya), had five hundred cow-elephants together with the King's elephant made ready, and informed him, "Your Majesty! The riding elephants are ready. Your Majesty can proceed at will."*

{* A Literal translation would read: "Now you know the time"}.

159. Then King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, had the female attendants mounted on the five hundred cow-elephants, one on each, and himself riding on his state elephant, with dignity befitting royalty, attended by torch-bearers, set forth from Rajagaha to the mango grove of Jivaka, the adopted son of the Prince (Abhaya).

On getting near the mango grove, King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, was seized with fear and alarm which caused the hairs on his body to stand erect. Frightened and agitated, with hairs standing on end, King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, said to Jivaka, the adopted son of the Prince (Abhaya):

"Friend Jivaka! Are you sure that you are not deceiving me? Friend Jivaka! Are you sure that you are not playing me tricks? Friend Jivaka! Are you sure you are not giving me into the hands of enemies? How is it that there is no sound, not even a sneeze nor a cough nor a spoken word among so large an assemblage of bhikkhus numbering twelve hundred and fifty?'

"Great King," (said Jivaka,) "Be not afraid! Great King! Be not afraid! Noble King, I am not deceiving you; Noble King, I am not playing you tricks; Noble King, I am not giving you into the hands of enemies. Proceed, Great King, proceed! The lamps are burning bright in the pavilion."

3. Questions on the Fruits of the Life of a Samana

160. Then King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, having gone on the elephant as far as it should go, dismounted and approached on foot the door of the pavilion and said to Jivaka, the adopted son of the Prince (Abhaya), "But, Friend Jivaka, where is the Bhagava?"

Jivaka said, "Great King, this is the Bhagava. The One sitting against the middle pillar and facing east, in front of the bhikkhus, is the Bhagava."

161. Then King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, approached the Bhagava, paid him homage and standing in a suitable place, looked again and again at the bhikkhus of the assemblage who were seated in perfect silence and calm as the waters of a clear lake. Then he made this solemn utterance:

"Would that my son, Prince Udayabhadda, be as peaceful as this assembly of the bhikkhus!"

"Indeed, Great King," said the Bhagava, "your thoughts have gone where affection leads."

"Venerable Sir," said the King, "I love Udayabhadda, the young Prince. Now this assembly of bhikkhus is very peaceful. May the young Prince, Udayabhadda, have the peace that this assembly possesses."

162. Then King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, made obeisance to the Bhagava, paid respect to the assembly of bhikkhus with joined palms raised (to the forehead) and took a suitable seat. And he addressed the Bhagava thus:

"Venerable Sir! If the Bhagava would permit me to put a question, I would like to ask something on a certain subject."

"You may ask, Great King," said the Bhagava, "what ever you wish to ask."

163. "Venerable Sir! There are (men of) various callings. And what are they?

They are: Elephant riders; horse riders; charioteers; archers; standard-bearers; military strategists; commandos; men of royal birth prominent as warriors; members of striking forces; men brave as elephants; men of valour; mail-clad warriors; trusted servants; confectioners; barbers; bath attendants; cooks; garland-makers; washermen; weavers; reed-mat makers; potters; arithmeticians; and accountants. Besides them, there are men of many other callings.

All those skilled in them enjoy the fruits of their proficiency in this very life. They make themselves well-fed and happy. And so do they make their mothers and fathers well-fed and happy, their wives and children well-fed and happy, and their friends well-fed and happy. They engage them selves in the practice of making gifts to samanas and brahmanas with a view to attaining the higher realms, the abodes of devas, and obtaining happy and beneficial results.

Can you, Venerable Sir, reveal to me the advantages to be gained in this very life from being a samana, similar to the advantages accruing from these callings ?"

164. "Do you remember, Great King, ever putting the same question to other samanas and brahmanas ?"

"I do remember, Venerable Sir, putting the same question to other samanas and brahmanas."

"Great King, if it is not burdensome for you to tell me how other samanas and brahmanas answered your questions, tell me."

"In the presence of the Bhagava, or a personage like him, it will not be burdensome for me."

"If that be so, speak, Great King!"

4. The Creed of Purana Kassapa

165. Once, Venerable Sir, I went to Purana Kassapa and exchanged glad greetings with him. Having exchanged courteous and memorable greetings, I sat in a suitable place and put to him this question:

"O Kassapa! There are (men of) various callings. And what are they?

They are: Elephant riders; horse riders; charioteers; archers; standard-bearers; military strategists; commandos; men of royal birth prominent as warriors; members of striking forces; men brave as elephants; men of valour; mail-clad warriors; trusted servants; confectioners; barbers; bath attendants; cooks; garland-makers; washermen; weavers; reed-mat makers; potters; arithmeticians; and accountants. Besides them, there are men of many other callings. All those skilled in them enjoy the fruits of their proficiency in this very life. They make themselves well-fed and happy. And so do they make their mothers and fathers well-fed and happy, their wives and children well-fed and happy, and their friends well-fed and happy. They engage them selves in the practice of making gifts to samanas and brahmanas with a view to attaining the higher realms, the abodes of devas, and obtaining happy and beneficial results.

Can you, O Kassapa, reveal to me the advantages to be gained in this very life from being a samana, similar to the advantages accruing from these callings ?"

166. At this, Venerable Sir, Purana Kassapa made this reply:

"Great King! One who acts or causes others to act, one who mutilates or causes others to mutilate, one who torments or causes others to torment, one who inflicts sorrow or causes others to inflict sorrow, one who oppresses and causes others to oppress, one who threatens or causes others to threaten, one who kills or causes others to kill, one who steals or causes others to steal, one who breaks into houses or causes others to break into houses, one who raids or causes others to raid villages, one who robs or causes others to rob, one who commits or causes others to commit highway robbery, one who commits or causes others to commit adultery or one who tells lies or causes others to tell lies is not deemed to have done evil even though he has done (these things). Even if one cuts up all beings on this earth into a pile or a heap of flesh with a grinding wheel fitted with razors, evil will not be caused. No evil ensues therefrom. Even if anyone living on the south bank of the Ganges should kill or cause others to kill, mutilate or cause others to mutilate, or torment or cause others to torment, no evil is done. No evil ensues therefrom. Even if anyone living on the north bank of the Ganges should give alms or cause others to give alms, or make offerings or cause others to make offerings, no meritorious action is done. No merit ensues therefrom. Such actions as giving in charity, controlling the senses, observing morality and speaking the truth will not bring about meritorious ness. No merit ensues therefrom."

Venerable Sir! I asked Purana Kassapa about the advantages in this very Life of being a samana, and he replied by expounding the doctrine of Akiriya. non-causative action or non-kamma. It is as if, when asked about a mango tree, he explains what a mountain-jack* is and when asked about a mountain-jack he explains what a mango tree is. Similarly, Purana Kassapa, when asked about the advantages in this very life of being a samana, explained to me the doctrine of Akiriya, non-kamma. At that, it occurred to me thus, Venerable Sir!

"Why should a king like me think of blaming the samanas and brahmanas living in my realm?"

Venerable Sir! I was not pleased with what Purana Kassapa told me. But I did not say that I rejected what he said. Although I neither liked it nor rejected it and said nothing about my displeasure, I arose and departed from his presence without accepting what he said or paying any heed to it.

{* mountain-jack, labuja: some translate this term as breadfruit tree.}

5. The Creed of Mikkhali Gosala

167. Once, Venerable Sir, I went to Makkhali Gosala and exchanged glad greetings with him. Having exchanged courteous and memorable greetings, I sat in a suitale place and put to him this question:

"O Gosala! There are (men of) various callings. And what are they?

They are: Elephant riders; horse riders; charioteers; archers; standard-bearers; military strategists; commandos; men of royal birth prominent as warriors; members of striking forces; men brave as elephants; men of valour; mail-clad warriors; trusted servants; confectioners; barbers; bath attendants; cooks; garland-makers; washermen; weavers; reed-mat makers; potters; arithmeticians; and accountants. Besides them, there are men of many other callings. All those skilled in them enjoy the fruits of their proficiency in this very life. They make themselves well-fed and happy. And so do they make their mothers and fathers well-fed and happy, their wives and children well-fed and happy, and their friends well-fed and happy. They engage them selves in the practice of making gifts to samanas and brahmanas with a view to attaining the higher realms, the abodes of devas, and obtaining happy and beneficial results.

Can you, O Gosala, reveal to me the advantages to be gained in this very life from being a samana, similar to the advantages accruing from these callings ?"

168. At this, Venerable Sir, Makkhali Gosala made this reply:

"Great King! There exists no cause or condition for beings to become defiled; they are defiled without cause or condition. There exists no cause or condition for beings to become absolutely pure; they are absolutely pure without cause or condition. There is no such thing as action done by oneself, nor action done by another for the sake of oneself, nor action done by men. There is no power, no energy, no human strength and no human endeavour. All sentient beings, all those that breathe, all those that exist, all those that possess the principle of life are devoid of power, energy, strength and endeavour. They just happen naturally, by chance and according to their own individual character. They experience pleasure and pain in accordance with the various positions they occupy in their hierarchy of six kinds of births. There are one million four hundred and six thousand six hundred main types of beings. There are five hundred kinds of actions (kamma), or else five, or else three; and there are complete actions as well as half actions. There are sixty two methods of religious practices, sixty-two world cycles, six categories of special castes, eight stages of man, four thousand and nine hundred 'modes of living, four thousand and nine hundred kinds of wandering ascetics, four thousand and nine hundred abodes of naga serpents, two thousand faculties of the senses, three thousand abodes of suffering (niraya), thirty-six repositories of atoms of dust, seven kinds of rebirth with consciousness (sanna), seven kinds of rebirth with out consciousness, seven kinds of reproduction by budding and grafting, seven kinds of devas, seven kinds of human beings, seven kinds of sprites, seven kinds of lakes, seven kinds of great prominences, seven hundred small prominences, seven great chasms, seven hundred small chasms, seven major dreams and seven hundred minor dreams. And then there are eighty four hundred thousand great cycles of time during which the fool and the wise alike, wandering from one existence to another, will at last put an end to the round of suffering. In the meanwhile there will be no end (of it). No one can say: 'By the practice of this morality and conduct, of this austerity, of this chastity, I shall make my immature actions grow into maturity, at the same time destroying mature actions by repeated encounters.' All happiness and misery have been measured in the measuring basket; and the round of rebirths is in this way delimited, with no extension or reduction. When a ball of string is thrown forward, it will go as far as the length of the string allows. In like manner both the fool and the wise would wander from one existence to another as far as they can go, and ultimately make an end of the round of suffering."

169. Venerable Sir! I asked Makkhali Gosala about the advantages in this very life of being a samara and he replied by expounding the doctrine of samsara suddhi, purification by means of the round of suffering. It is as if, when asked about a mango tree, he explains what a mountain-jack is and when asked about a mountain-jack, he explains what a mango tree is. Similarly, Makkhali Gosala, when asked about the advantages in this very life of being a samana, explained to me the doctrine of purification by means of the round of suffering. At that, it occurred to me thus, Venerable Sir!

"Why should a king like me think of blaming the samanas and brahmanas living in my realm?"

Venerable Sir! I was not pleased with what Makkhali Gosala told me. But I did not say that I rejected what he said. Although I neither liked it nor rejected it and said nothing about my displeasure, I arose and departed from his presence without accepting what he said or paying any heed to it.

6. The Creed of Ajita Kesakambala

170. Once, Venerable Sir, I went to Ajita Kesakambala and exchanged glad greetings with him. Having exchanged courteous and memorable greetings, I sat in a suitable place and put to him this question.

"O Ajita! There are (men of) various callings. And what are they?

They are: Elephant riders; horse riders; charioteers; archers; standard-bearers; military strategists; commandos; men of royal birth prominent as warriors; members of striking forces; men brave as elephants; men of valour; mail-clad warriors; trusted servants; confectioners; barbers; bath attendants; cooks; garland-makers; washermen; weavers; reed-mat makers; potters; arithmeticians; and accountants. Besides them, there are men of many other callings. All those skilled in them enjoy the fruits of their proficiency in this very life. They make themselves well-fed and happy. And so do they make their mothers and fathers well-fed and happy, their wives and children well-fed and happy, and their friends well-fed and happy. They engage them selves in the practice of making gifts to samanas and brahmanas with a view to attaining the higher realms, the abodes of devas, and obtaining happy and beneficial results.

Can you, O Ajita, reveal to me the advantages to be gained in this very life from being a samana, similar to the advantages accruing from these callings ?"

171. At this, Venerable Sir. Ajita Kesakambala made this reply:

"Great King! There is no (consequence to) alms-giving, sacrifice or oblation. A good or bad action produces no result. This world does not exist, nor do other worlds. There is no mother, no father, (all good or evil done to them producing no result). There is no rebirth of beings after death. In this world, there are no samanas or brahmanas, established in the Noble Path and accomplished in good practice, who through direct knowledge (i.e.,magga insight) acquired by their own efforts, can expound on this world and other worlds. This being is but a compound of the four great primary elements; after death, the earth-element (or element of extension) returns and goes back to the body of the earth, the water-element (or element of cohesion) returns and goes back to the body of water, the fire-element (or element of thermal energy) returns and goes back to the body of fire, and the air-element (or element of motion) returns and goes back to the body of air, while the mental faculties pass on into space. The four pall-bearers and the bier (constituting the fifth) carry the corpse. The remains of the dead can be seen up to the cemetery where bare bones lie greying like the colour of the pigeons. All alms- giving ends in ashes. Fools prescribe alms-giving; and some assert that there is such a thing as merit in alms-giving; but their words are empty, false and nonsensical. Both the fool and the wise are annihilated and destroyed after death and dissolution of their bodies. Nothing exists after death."

172. Venerable Sir! I asked Ajita Kesakambala about the advantages in this very life of being a samana, and he replied by expounding the doctrine of annihilation. It is as if, when asked about a mango tree, he explains what a mountain-jack is and when asked about a mountain-jack, he explains what a mango tree is. Similarly, Ajita Kesakambala, when asked about the advantages in this very life of being a samara, explained to me the doctrine of annihilation. At that, it occurred to me thus, Venerable Sir!

"Why should a king like me think of blaming the samanas and brahmanas living in my realm?"

Venerable Sir! I was not pleased with what Ajita Kesakambala told me. But I did not say that I rejected what he said. Although I neither liked it nor rejected it and said nothing about my displeasure. I arose and departed from his presence without accepting what he said or paying any heed to it.

7. The Creed of Pakudha Kaccayana

173. Once, Venerable Sir, I went to Pakudha Kaccayana and exchanged glad greetings with him. Having exchanged courteous and memorable greetings, I sat in a suitable place and put to him this question.

"O Kaccayana ! There are (men of) various callings. And what are they?

They are: Elephant riders; horse riders; charioteers; archers; standard-bearers; military strategists; commandos; men of royal birth prominent as warriors; members of striking forces; men brave as elephants; men of valour; mail-clad warriors; trusted servants; confectioners; barbers; bath attendants; cooks; garland-makers; washermen; weavers; reed-mat makers; potters; arithmeticians; and accountants. Besides them, there are men of many other callings. All those skilled in them enjoy the fruits of their proficiency in this very life. They make themselves well-fed and happy. And so do they make their mothers and fathers well-fed and happy, their wives and children well-fed and happy, and their friends well-fed and happy. They engage them selves in the practice of making gifts to samanas and brahmanas with a view to attaining the higher realms, the abodes of devas, and obtaining happy and beneficial results.

Can you, O Kaccayana, reveal to me the advantages to be gained in this very life from being a samana, similar to the advantages accruing from these callings ?"

174. At this, Venerable Sir, Pakudha Kaccayana made this reply:

"Great King! There is this group of seven which is neither made nor caused to be made, and neither created nor caused to be created. These seven are sterile, permanent as a mountain peak and firm as a gate post. They are unshakable, immutable, unable to harm one another and incapable of causing pleasure or pain or both pleasure and pain to one another. And what are those seven? They are: the body of earth, of water, of fire, of air; pleasure, pain and the soul*.

"These seven are neither made nor caused to be made, and neither created nor caused to be created. They are sterile, permanent as a mountain peak and firm as a gate post. They are unshakable, immutable, unable to harm one another and incapable of causing pleasure or pain or both pleasure and pain to one another. Among the seven there is neither killer nor one who causes killing, neither hearer nor one who causes hearing, neither knower nor one who causes knowing. When one cuts off another's head with a sharp weapon, it does not mean that one has killed the other, for the weapon only falls through the space in between the seven."

{* The soul: jiva, Another moaning of jiva is "life" or the "life-principle".

175. Venerable Sir! I asked Pakudha Kaccayana about the advantages in this very life of being a samana and he replied by substituting another subject. It is as if, when asked about a mango tree, he explains what a mountain-jack is and when asked about a mountain-jack, he explains what a mango tree is. Similarly, Pakudha Kaccayana, when asked about the advantages in this very life of being a samana, substituted another subject. At that, it occurred to me thus, Venerable Sir!

"Why should a king like me think of blaming the samanas and brahmanas living in my realm ?"

Venerable Sir! I was not pleased with what Pakudha Kaccayana told me. But I did not say that I rejected what he said. Although I neither liked it nor rejected it and said nothing about my displeasure, I arose and departed from his presence without accepting what he said or paying any heed to it.

8. The Creed of Nigantha Nataputta

176. Once, Venerable Sir, I went to Nigantha Nataputta and exchanged glad greetings with him. Having exchanged courteous and memorable greetings, I sat in a suitable place and put to him this question.

"O Aggivessana !* There are (men of) various callings. And what are they?

They are: Elephant riders; horse riders; charioteers; archers; standard-bearers; military strategists; commandos; men of royal birth prominent as warriors; members of striking forces; men brave as elephants; men of valour; mail-clad warriors; trusted servants; confectioners; barbers; bath attendants; cooks; garland-makers; washermen; weavers; reed-mat makers; potters; arithmeticians; and accountants. Besides them, there are men of many other callings. All those skilled in them enjoy the fruits of their proficiency in this very life. They make themselves well-fed and happy. And so do they make their mothers and fathers well-fed and happy, their wives and children well-fed and happy, and their friends well-fed and happy. They engage them selves in the practice of making gifts to samanas and brahmanas with a view to attaining the higher realms, the abodes of devas, and obtaining happy and beneficial results.

Can you, O Aggivessana, reveal to me the advantages to be gained in this very life from being a samana, similar to the advantages accruing from these callings ?"
{* Aggivessana is the family name of Nigntha Nataputta}

177. At this, Venerable Sir, Nigantha Nataputta made this reply:

"Great King! In this world a Nigantha is disciplined in four kinds of self-restraint. And what are they? They are as follows. A Nigantha abstains from taking cold water from all sources. He abstains from all (evil), and by such complete abstinence, throws off all (evil), and achieves* perfect restraint. O King! A Nigantha who is disciplined in these four kinds of self-restraint is deemed to have become perfected in self-discipline, self-restraint and steadfastness."
{* Achieves: lit., comes into contact with.}

178. Venerable Sir! I asked Nigantha Nataputta about the advantages in this very life of being a samana, and he replied by expounding the fourfold self-discipline. It is as if, when asked about a mango tree, he explains what a mountain-jack is and when asked about a mountain-jack, he explains what a mango tree is. Nigantha Nataputta, when asked about the advantages in this very life of being a samana, expounded the fourfold self-discipline. At that, it occurred to me thus, Venerable Sir!

"Why should a king like me think of blaming the samanas and brahmanas living in my realm ?"

Venerable Sir! I was not pleased with what Nigantha Naaputta told me. But I did not say that I rejected what he said. Although I neither liked it nor rejected it and said nothing about my displeasure, I arose and departed from his presence without accepting what he said or paying any heed to it.

9. The Creed of Sancaya Belatthaputta

179. Once, Venerable Sir, I went to Sancaya Belatthaputta and exchanged glad greetings with him. Having exchanged courteous and memorable greetings, I sat in a suitable place and put to him this question.

"O Sankaya! There are (men of) various callings. And what are they?

They are: Elephant riders; horse riders; charioteers; archers; standard-bearers; military strategists; commandos; men of royal birth prominent as warriors; members of striking forces; men brave as elephants; men of valour; mail-clad warriors; trusted servants; confectioners; barbers; bath attendants; cooks; garland-makers; washermen; weavers; reed-mat makers; potters; arithmeticians; and accountants. Besides them, there are men of many other callings. All those skilled in them enjoy the fruits of their proficiency in this very life. They make themselves well-fed and happy. And so do they make their mothers and fathers well-fed and happy, their wives and children well-fed and happy, and their friends well-fed and happy. They engage them selves in the practice of making gifts to samanas and brahmanas with a view to attaining the higher realms, the abodes of devas, and obtaining happy and beneficial results.

Can you, O Sankaya,, reveal to me the advantages to be gained in this very life from being a samana, similar to the advantages accruing from these callings ?"

180. At this, Venerable Sir, Sancaya Belatthaputta made this reply:

"If I were asked, 'Is there another world?' and if I took it that there is, I should answer 'There is another world.' But I would not say this way, nor that way, nor the other way; neither would I say not this way, not that way, not the other way; nor would I say otherwise.

If I were asked:

* whether there is not another world...

* whether there is, and also is not, another world. ....

* whether there neither is, nor is not, another world

* whether there is opapatika birth* of beings.... whet her' there is no opapatika birth of beings.... whether there is, and also there is not, opapatika birth of beings...

* whether it is not that there is, and also there is not, opapatika birth of beings...

* whether a good or a bad kamma produces results...

* whether a good or a bad kamma produces no results...

* whether it is that a good or a bad kamma produces results and also does not produce results...

* whether it is not that a good or a bad kamma produces results and also does not produce results...

* whether there is life after death**

* whether there is no life after death...

* whether there is life as well as no life after death...

* whether it is not that there is life as well as no life after death, and if I took it that it is not that there is life as well as no life after death, I should answer 'It is not that there is life as well as no life after death.' But I would not

* say this way, nor that way, not the other way; neither would I say not this way, not that way, not the other way; nor would I say otherwise."

* See para 65, Brahmajala Sutta.

** Literally: Whether a sentient being exists after death...

181. Venerable Sir! I asked Sancaya Belatthaputta about the advantages in this very life of being a samana, and he replied by expounding the creed of evasion. It is as if, when asked about a mango tree, he explains what a mountain-jack is, and when asked about a mountain-jack, he explains what a mango tree is. Similarly, Sancaya Belatthaputta, when asked about the advantages in this very life of being a samana, expounded the creed of evasion. At that, it occurred to me thus, Venerable Sir!

"Of all samanas and brahmanas, this man is the most foolish and bewildered. Why did he tell me the creed of evasion when I asked him about the advantages in this very life of being a samana? Why should a king like me think of blaming the samanas and brahmanas living in my realm ?"

Venerable Sir! I was not pleased with what Sancaya Belatthaputta told me. But I did not say that I rejected what he said. Although I neither liked it nor rejected it and said nothing about my displeasure, I arose and departed from his presence without accepting what he said or paying any heed to it.

10. First Advantage of a Samana's Life Experienced Here and Now

182. Venerable Sir! Let me ask of you also. There are (men of) various callings. And what are they?

They are: Elephant riders; horse riders; charioteers; archers; standard-bearers; military strategists; commandos; men of royal birth prominent as warriors; members of striking forces; men brave as elephants; men of valour; mail-clad warriors; trusted servants; confectioners; barbers; bath attendants; cooks; garland-makers; washermen; weavers; reed-mat makers; potters; arithmeticians; and accountants. Besides them, there are men of many other callings. All those skilled in them enjoy the fruits of their proficiency in this very life. They make themselves well-fed and happy. And so do they make their mothers and fathers well-fed and happy, their wives and children well-fed and happy, and their friends well-fed and happy. They engage them selves in the practice of making gifts to samanas and brahmanas with a view to attaining the higher realms, the abodes of devas, and obtaining happy and beneficial results.

183. I can, Great King! But in order to tell you about this, let me put a counter-question to you. Answer it as you like. Now what do you think of this?

Suppose you had a household servant, whose habit was to get up from bed earlier and retire later than his master, and who was ready to act at his master's bidding, performing duties to give pleasure to his master, affable in speech, and observant of his master's demeanour to know what he wanted. Suppose it occurred to him thus:

'Friends! How wonderful and extraordinary is the state of existence conditioned by meritorious deeds and the resultant effect of such deeds! Here is King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, who is a man; and I also am a man. But King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, enjoys to the full the five pleasures of the senses as if he were a deva. I am but a servant, getting up from bed earlier and retiring later than my master, ready to act at his bidding, performing duties to give pleasure to him, affable in speech and observant of his demeanour to know what he wants. Had I done meritorious deeds I could have been a king like him. Now it were better for me to shave off my hair and beard, don the bark-dyed robe, renounce hearth and home, and become a recluse leading the homeless life.'

Suppose that afterwards that man shaved off his hair and beard, donned the bark-dyed robe, renounced hearth and home, and became a recluse leading the homeless life. Having become a recluse he exercised self-control in bodily, verbal and mental actions, content with what he could get for food and clothing and delighting in solitude. Then suppose your attendants, reported to you thus:

'Your Majesty! Please know this. Your Majesty's servant, who used to get up from bed earlier and retire later than you, ready to act at your bidding, performing his duties to give pleasure to you, affable in speech and observant of your demeanour to know what you wanted, has shaved off his hair and beard, donned the bark-dyed robe, renounced hearth and home, and has become a recluse leading the homeless life. Having thus become a recluse he exercised self-control in bodily, verbal and mental actions, content with what he could get for food and clothing, and delighting in solitude.'

If he were thus reported, would it be appropriate for you to say:

'Men! Let that man come back to me! Let him be a servant again, rising up from bed earlier and retiring later than I, ready to act at my bidding, performing duties to give pleasure to me, affable in speech and observant of my demeanour to know what I want.'?

184. "No, Venerable Sir! Indeed we should pay respect to him, welcome him and beg him to be seated. We should even invite him to accept our offerings of such requisites as robe, food, shelter, and medicine for use in illness. And we should also provide protection and security for him according to law."

185. If that be so, Great King, what do you think of this? Is there or is there not any personally experienced advantage in being a samana?

"Venerable Sir, there is certainly a personally experienced advantage in being a samana. "

Great King! This, I say to you, is the first advantage of being a samana, personally experienced in this very life.

11. Second Advantages of a Samana's Life
Experienced Here and Now

186. "Can you, Venerable Sir, reveal to me any other similar advantage of being a samana personally experienced in this very life ?"

I can, Great King. But in order to tell you about this, let me put a counter-question to you. Answer it as you like. Now what do you think of this? Suppose you had in your kingdom a landholder cultivating his own land and paying taxes to increase (the country's) wealth. Suppose it occurred to him thus:

'Friends! How wonderful and extraordinary is the state of existence conditioned by meritorious deeds and the resultant effect of such deeds! Here is King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, who is a man; and I also am a man. But King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, enjoys to the full the five pleasures of the senses as if he were a deva. I am but a landholder cultivating my own land and paying taxes to increase (the country's) wealth. Had I done meritorious deeds I could have been a king like him. Now it were better for me to shave off my hair and beard, don the bark-dyed robe, renounce hearth and home, and become a recluse leading the homeless life.'

Suppose that afterwards that man gave up his wealth, great or small, leaving his relatives, be they few or be they many, shaved off his hair and beard, donned the bark-dyed robe, renounced hearth and home and became a recluse leading the homeless life. Having thus become a recluse, he exercised self-control in bodily, verbal and mental actions, content with what he could get for food and clothing, delighting in solitude. Suppose, then, your attendants reported to you thus:

'Your Majesty! Please know this. Your Majesty's landholder who used to cultivate his own land and pay taxes to increase (the country's) wealth has shaved off his hair and beard, donned the bark-dyed robe, renounced hearth and home, and has become a recluse leading the homeless life. Having thus become a recluse, he exercised self-control in bodily, verbal and mental actions, content with what he could get for food and clothing, delighting in solitude.'

If he were thus reported, would it be appropriate for you to say:

'Men! Let that man come back to me! Let him be a landholder again, cultivating his own land and paying taxes to increase (the country's) wealth.'?

187. "No, Venerable Sir! Indeed we should pay respect to him, welcome him and beg him to be seated. We should even invite him to accept our offerings of such requisites as robe, food, shelter, and medicine for use in illness. And we should also provide protection and security for him according to Law."

188. If that be so, Great King, what do you think of this? Is there or is there not any personally experienced advantage in being a samana?

"Venerable Sir! There is certainly a personally experienced advantage in being a samana."

Great King! This, I say to you, is the second advantage of being a samana, personally experienced in this very life.

12. Higher and Better Advantage of a Samana's Life

189. "Can you, Venerable Sir, reveal to me any other advantage, higher and better, of being a samana, personally experienced in this very life ?"

I can, Great King! Listen and pay good attention. I shall speak.

"Very well, Venerable Sir!" said King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi.

190. Then the Bhagava spoke thus:

Great King! There arises in this world the Tathagata who is worthy of special veneration, who truly comprehends all Dhammas by his own intellect and insight, who possesses supreme knowledge and perfect practice of morality, who speaks only what is beneficial and true, who knows all the three lokas, who is incomparable in taming those who deserve to be tamed, who is the Teacher of devas and men, who is the Enlightened One, knowing and teaching the Four Noble Truths, and who is the Most Exalted. Through Perfect Wisdom, he personally realizes the nature of the universe with its devas, Maras and Brahmas, and also the world of human beings with its samanas and brahmanas, kings and men, and knowing it, he expounds on it. He proclaims the dhamma which is excellent at the beginning, excellent at the middle, and excellent at the end, with richness in meaning and words. He makes clear the completeness and purity of the Noble Practice'.

191. A householder, or his son, or anyone belonging to any caste, listens to that dhamma. On hearing the dhamma he develops faith in the Tathagata. When faith is thus developed, he considers thus:

'Confined is the life of a householder; it is a path laden with dust (of defilement). A samana's life is like an open plain. Difficult it is for a layman to pursue the Noble Practice in all its fullness, in all its purity, like a polished conch. Now, it were better for me to shave off my hair and beard, don the bark-dyed robe, renounce hearth and home, and become a recluse leading the homeless life.'

192. Afterwards, he gives up his wealth, great or small, leaving his relatives, be they few or be they many, shaves off his hair and beard, dons the bark-dyed robe, renounces hearth and home, and becomes a recluse leading the homeless life.

193. When he has thus become a samana, he practises self-restraint in accordance with the fundamental precepts (patimokkhasamvara sila). He is endowed with good practice and resorts only to suitable places**. He now sees danger even in the least offences. He observes the precepts well. Being possessed of good deeds and good words, he pursues a pure livelihood. He is endowed with morality. He has his sense-doors guarded. He attains mindfulness and clearness of comprehension. He is contented.

* Noble Practice: Brahmacariya: The Noble Practice of morality (sila), concentration (samadhi) and wisdom (panna) as practised by the Buddha and the Ariyas.

** "ReSorts. . .. places": Gocara; another interpretation of this term as "a suitable subject for constant meditation."


13. Cula Sila

(Minor Morality)

194. Great King! How is a bhikkhu endowed with morality? In this matter, Great King, a bhikkhu abandons all thoughts of taking life and abstains from destruction of life, setting aside the stick and the sword, ashamed to do evil, and he is compassionate and dwells with solicitude for the welfare of all living beings. This is one of the precepts of his morality.

He abandons all thoughts of taking what is not given and abstains from taking what is not given. He accepts only what is given, wishing to receive only what is given. He establishes himself in purity by abstaining from committing theft. This also is one of the precepts of his morality.

He abandons all thoughts of leading a life of unchastity and practises chastity, remaining virtuous and abstinent from sexual intercourse, the practice of lay people. This also is one of the precepts of his morality.

He abandons all thoughts of telling lies and abstains from telling lies, speaking only the truth, combining truth with truth, and remaining steadfast (in truth), trust worthy and not deceiving. This also is one of the precepts of his morality.

He abandons all thoughts of slandering and abstains from slander. Hearing things from these people he does not relate them to those people to sow the seed of discord among them. Hearing things from those people he does not relate them to these people to sow the seed of discord among them. He reconciles those who are at variance. He encourages those who are in accord. He delights in unity, loves it and rejoices in it. He speaks to create harmony. This also is one of the precepts of his morality.

He abandons all thoughts of speaking harshly and abstains from harsh speech. He speaks only blameless words, pleasing to the ear, affectionate, going to the heart, courteous, pleasing to many and heartening to many. This also is one of the precepts of his morality.

He abandons all thoughts of talking frivolously and abstains from frivolous talk. His speech is appropriate to the occasion, being truthful, beneficial, consistent with the Doctrine and the Discipline, memorable, timely and opportune, with reasons, confined within limits and conducive to welfare. This also is one of the precepts of his morality.

He abstains from destroying all seeds and vegetation. .

He takes only one meal a day, not taking food at night and fasting after mid-day.

He abstains from dancing, singing, music and watching (entertainment) that is a stumbling block to the attainment of morality.

He abstains from wearing flowers, using perfumes and anointing with unguents.

He abstains from the use of high and luxurious beds and seats.

He abstains from the acceptance of gold and silver.

He abstains from the acceptance of uncooked cereals.

He abstains from the acceptance of uncooked meat.

He abstains from the acceptance of women and maidens.

He abstains from the acceptance of male and female slaves.

He abstains from the acceptance of goats and sheep.

He abstains from the acceptance of chickens and pigs.

He abstains from the acceptance of elephants, cattle, horses and mares.

He abstains from the acceptance of cultivated or uncultivated land.

He abstains from acting as messenger or courier.

He abstains from buying and selling.

He abstains from using false weights and measures and counterfeits.

He abstains from such dishonest practices as bribery, cheating and fraud.

He abstains from maiming, murdering, holding persons in captivity, committing highway robbery, plundering villages and committing dacoity.

14. Majjhima Sila

(Middle Morality)

195. There are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), are given to destroying such things as seeds and vegetation. And what are such things? They are of five kinds, namely, root-germs, stem-germs, node-germs, plumu-germs and seed-germs. A bhikkhu abstains from destroying such seeds and vegetation. This is one of the precepts of his morality.

196. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), are given to storing up and using things offered, such as cooked rice, beverages, clothing, sandals, beds, unguents and eatables. A bhikkhu abstains from storing up and using such things. This also is one of the precepts of his morality.

197. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out' of faith (in kamma and its results), are given to watching (entertainment) that is a stumbling block to the attainment of morality. And what are such entertainments? They are: dancing, singing, music, shows, recitations, hand-clapping, brass-instrument-playing, drum-playing, art exhibitions, playing with an iron ball, bamboo raising games, rituals of washing the bones of the dead, elephant-fights, horse-fights, buffalo-fights, bull-fights, goat-fights, sheep-fights, cock-fights, quail-fights, fighting with quarter-staffs, boxing, wrestling, military tattoos, military reviews, route-marches and troop-movements. A bhikkhu abstains from watching (entertainments) that is a stumbling block to the attainment of morality. This also is one of the precepts of his morality.

198. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), are given to betting (and taking part in sports and games) that weakens one's vigilance (in the practice of morality). And what are such sports and games? They are: playing chess on eight-squared or ten-squared boards; playing imaginary chess using the sky as a chess-board; playing chess on a moon-shaped chess-board; flipping cowries with thumb and finger; throwing dice; playing tipcat; playing with brush and paints; playing marbles; playing whistling games with folded leaves; playing with miniature ploughs; acrobatics; turning palm-leaf wheels; measuring with toy-baskets made of leaves; playing with miniature chariots; playing with small bows and arrows; alphabetical riddles; mind-reading and simulating physical defects. A bhikkhu abstains from betting (and taking part in such sports and games) that weakens one's vigilance (in the practice of morality). This also is one of' the precepts of his morality.

199. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), are given to using high and luxurious beds and their furnishings. And what are they? They are: high couches; divans raised on sculptured legs; long-fleeced carpets; woollen carpets with quaint (geometrical) designs; white woollen cover lets; woollen coverlets with floral designs; mattresses stuffed with cotton; woollen coverlets with pictorial designs; woollen coverlets with fringes on one or both sides; gold-brocaded coverlets; silk coverlets; large carpets (wide enough for sixteen dancing girls to dance on); saddle cloth and trappings for elephants and horses; upholstery for carriages: rugs made of black panther's hide; rugs made of antelope's hide; red canopies and couches with red bolsters at each end. A bhikkhu abstains from using such high and luxurious beds and their furnishings. This also is one of the precepts of his morality.

200. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), are given to beautifying or adorning themselves. And what are such embellishments and adornments? They are: using perfumed cosmetics; getting massaged; taking perfumed baths; developing One's physique; using mirrors; painting eye lashes dark; decorating (oneself) with flowers; applying powder and lotion to the body; beautifying the face with powder and lotion; wearing bangles; tying the hair into a top-knot; carrying walking sticks or ornamented hollow cylinders (containing medicinal herbs) or swords; using multi-coloured umbrellas or footwear (with gorgeous designs); wearing a turban, or a hair-pin set with rubies; carrying a Yak-tail fan; and wearing long white robes with fringes. A bhikkhu abstains from such embellishments and adornments. This also is one of the precepts of his morality.

201. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), are given to engaging themselves in unprofitable talk (that is contrary to correct practice conducive to the attainment of deva realms and Nibbana), such as talk about kings, thieves, ministers, armed forces, calamities, battles, food, drinks, clothing, beds, flowers, unguents, relatives, vehicles, villages. market-towns, cities, provinces, womenfolk, heroes, streets, water-fronts, the dead and the departed, trivialities, the universe, the oceans, prosperity, adversity, and so on. A bhikkhu abstains from engaging himself in such unprofitable talk. This also is one of the precepts of his morality.

202. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), are given to mutually disparaging disputes. And what are they? (They are as follows:) "You do not know this Doctrine and Discipline. I know this Doctrine and Discipline. How can you ever know this Doctrine and Discipline? Your practice is wrong. My practice is right. What I say is coherent and sensible. What you say is not coherent and sensible What you should say first, you say last; and what you should say last, you say first. What you have long practised to say has been upset now. I have exposed the faults in your doctrine. You stand rebuked. Try to escape from this censure, or explain it if you can." A bhikkhu abstains from such mutually disparaging disputes. This also is one of the precepts of his morality.

203. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), are given to serving as messengers or couriers. And what are such services? They are: going from this place to that place, or coming from that place to this place and taking things from this place to that place, or bringing things from that place to this place, on behalf of kings, ministers, brahmins, house-holders and youths. A bhikkhu abstains from serving as messenger or courier. This also is one of the precepts of his morality.

204. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), practise deceitful pretension (to attainments), flattery (for gain), subtle insinuation by signs or indications (for gain), using pressure (to get offerings) and the seeking of more gain by cunning offer of gifts. A bhikkhu abstains from such pretension and flattery. This also is one of the precepts of his morality.

End of the Chapter on Middle Morality

15. Maha Sila
(Major Morality)

205. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), make a wrongful living by means of low arts contrary to correct practice conducive to the attainment of deva realms and Nibbana. And what are such low arts? They are: fortune telling from a study of physical characteristics, or of signs and omens, or of lightning; interpreting dreams; reading physiognomy; prognosticating from a study of rat-bites; indicating benefits from fire-oblation with different kinds of firewood, or with different kinds of ladles, or with husks, broken rice, whole rice, clarified butter, oil, oral spells, or with blood; reading physiognomy while chanting spells; fore casting good or bad fortune from the signs and marks of a piece of land; being versed in state affairs; reciting spells in the graveyard to eliminate dangers; reciting spells to overcome evil spirits; using magical formulae learnt in a mud-house; charming snakes and curing snake-bites; treating poisoning; curing scorpion-stings or rat-bites; interpreting animal and bird sounds and the cawing of crows; foretelling the remaining length of life; diverting the flight of arrows; and identifying the cries of animals. A bhikkhu abstains from making a wrongful living by such means. This also is one of the precepts of his morality.

206. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), make a wrongful living by means of low arts contrary to correct practice conducive to the attainment of deva realms and Nibbana. And what are they? They are: reading the portents of gems, dresses, sticks, daggers, swords, arrows, bows and other weapons; reading the characteristics of women, men, young men, young women, male slaves, female slaves, elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls and other cattle, goats, sheep, chickens, quails, iguanas, pointed-eared animals*, tortoises and game-beasts. A bhikkhu abstains from making a wrongful living by such means. This also is one of the precepts of his morality.

207. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), make a wrongful living by means of low arts contrary to correct practice conducive to the attainment of deva realms and Nibbana. And what are they? They are: making predictions about kings going to war; about kings coming back from war; about kings advancing in battle from their home country; about kings from foreign countries retreating; about kings from foreign countries advancing in battle; about kings retreating to their home country; about kings from their home country winning battles; about kings from foreign countries losing battles; about kings from foreign countries winning battles; about kings in their home country losing battles; and about probabilities of victories and losses of warring kings. A bhikkhu abstains from making a wrongful living by such means. This also is one of the precepts of his morality.

* See footnote to Para 22, Brahmajala Sutta.

208. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), make a wrongful living by means of low arts contrary to correct practice conducive to the attainment of deva realms and Nibbana. And what are they? They are: making predictions about the eclipse of the moon, or of the sun; about the conjunction of a group of stars with a planet; about the correct or incorrect course of the moon, the sun and the planets; about meteors, comets, earthquakes and thunder; about the rising and setting of the moon, the sun and the planets; about the phenomena of darkness and brightness following such rising and setting; about the effects of the eclipse of the moon, or of the sun, or of the planets; about the effects of the moon or the sun taking the right course; about the effects of the moon or the sun taking the wrong course; about the effects of the planets taking the right course; about the effects of the planets taking the wrong course; about the effects of meteors, comets, earthquakes and thunder; about the effects of the rising and setting of the moon, or of the sun, or of the planets; and about the effects of the phenomena of darkness or brightness following such rising and setting. A bhikkhu abstains from making a wrongful living by such means. This also is one of the precepts of his morality.

209. And then there are certain respected samanas and Brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), make a wrongful living by means of low arts contrary to correct practice conducive to the attainment of deva realms and Nibbana. And what are they? They are: predicting rainfall or drought, abundance or famine, peace or calamity, disease or health; and knowledge of counting on the fingers or of arithmetical or mathematical calculations, of versification, and of treatises on controversial matters (such as the origin of the universe etc.). A bhikkhu abstains from making a wrongful living by such means. This also is one of the precepts of his morality.

210. And then there are certain respected samanas and Brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), make a wrongful living by means of low arts contrary to correct practice conducive to the attainment of deva realms and Nibbana. And what arc they? They are: bringing the bride to the bridegroom, leading away the bride from her father's home; arranging betrothal, or divorce; making predictions relating to acquisition or distribution of property; causing gain or loss of fame and prosperity; curing the tendency to abort or miscarry; casting spells to cause immobility of the tongue or the jaws; reciting a spell to stop an attacking hand; or to cause inability to speak or to hear; conducting seances with the aid of mirrors, or employing young women or female slaves as mediums; propitiating the sun or the Brahma; making fire issue from the mouth by means f a spell; and making invocations to the goddess of glory. A bhikkhu abstains from making a wrongful living by such means. This also is one of the precepts of his morality.

211. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), make a wrongful living by means of low arts contrary to correct practice conducive to the attainment of deva realms and Nibbana. And what are they? They are: propitiating the devas by promises of offerings; making offerings to the devas for favours granted; causing possession by spirits or exorcising them; casting spells with magical formulae learnt in a mud-house; turning a eunuch into a man; turning a man into a eunuch; practising the art of choosing building-sites; propitiating the devas while choosing building-sites; practising the profession of mouth-washing or bathing; fire-worshipping; causing vomiting; giving purgatives: using emetics, Or catharses; letting out phlegm etc. from the head; pre paring ear-drops or eye-drops; preparing medicinal snuff, or eye ointment to remove cataracts; preparing eye-lotions; curing cataracts; doing surgery; practising paediatrics; preparing basic drugs; and dressing sores and removing the dressing. A bhikkhu abstains from making a wrongful living by such means. This also is one of the precepts of his morality.

212. Great King! A. bhikkhu thus endowed with morality encounters no danger in any way arising out of his practice of morality. A sovereign, duly anointed and installed as king after having defeated his enemies, can encounter no danger whatsoever from his enemies. In the same way, a bhikkhu thus endowed with morality encounters no danger in any way arising out of his practice of morality. That bhikkhu, possessing this noble group of moral precepts, enjoys within himself happiness that is free from blame. Thus is a bhikkhu endowed with morality.

End or the Chapter on Major Morality

16. Guarding the Sense Faculties
(Indriya Samvara)

213. How, Great King, does a bhikkhu keep the doors closed at the faculties of the senses? (i.e. ,How does he guard the sense faculties?) In this matter...

When ever a bhikkhu sees a visible object with the eye,

he does not take in its appearance (such as male or female), nor its characteristics (such as movement or behaviour). If the faculty of sight is left unguarded, such depraved states of mind as covetousness and dissatisfaction stemming from that would overpower him as he fails to control his senses. So he sets himself to the task of guarding his faculty of sight, keeps watch on it, and gains control over it.

Whenever he hears a sound with the ear,
he does not take in its appearance (such as male or female), nor its characteristics (such as movement or behaviour). If the faculty of sight is left unguarded, such depraved states of mind as covetousness and dissatisfaction stemming from that would overpower him as he fails to control his senses. So he sets himself to the task of guarding his faculty of sight, keeps watch on it, and gains control over it.

Whenever he smells an odour with the nose,
he does not take in its appearance (such as male or female), nor its characteristics (such as movement or behaviour). If the faculty of sight is left unguarded, such depraved states of mind as covetousness and dissatisfaction stemming from that would overpower him as he fails to control his senses. So he sets himself to the task of guarding his faculty of sight, keeps watch on it, and gains control over it.

Whenever he tastes a flavour with the tongue,
he does not take in its appearance (such as male or female), nor its characteristics (such as movement or behaviour). If the faculty of sight is left unguarded, such depraved states of mind as covetousness and dissatisfaction stemming from that would overpower him as he fails to control his senses. So he sets himself to the task of guarding his faculty of sight, keeps watch on it, and gains control over it.

Whenever he makes contact with the body,
he does not take in its appearance (such as male or female), nor its characteristics (such as movement or behaviour). If the faculty of sight is left unguarded, such depraved states of mind as covetousness and dissatisfaction stemming from that would overpower him as he fails to control his senses. So he sets himself to the task of guarding his faculty of sight, keeps watch on it, and gains control over it.

Whenever he cognizes a mind-object with the mind,
he does not take in its appearance (such as male or female), nor its characteristics (such as movement or behaviour). If the faculty of sight is left unguarded, such depraved states of mind as covetousness and dissatisfaction stemming from that would overpower him as he fails to control his senses. So he sets himself to the task of guarding his faculty of sight, keeps watch on it, and gains control over it.

And the bhikkhu, endowed with this noble control of the sense faculties, enjoys within himself happiness unalloyed (with defilements of the mind). In this way, Great King, a bhikkhu keeps the doors closed at the faculties of the senses.

17. Mindfulness and Awareness
(Satisampajanna)

214. Great King! How is a bhikkhu endowed with mindfulness and clear comprehension (of what he does)? In this matter, a bhikkhu keeps himself completely aware, in moving forward or back; keeps himself completely aware, in looking forward or sideways; keeps himself completely aware, in bending or stretching his limbs; keeps himself completely aware, in carrying or wearing the great robe (i.e., double-layered robe), alms-bowl and the other two robes; keeps himself completely aware, in eating, drinking, chewing and savouring (food and beverages); keeps himself completely aware, in urinating and defecating; keeps him self completely aware, in walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking, speaking and observing silence. Thus, Great King, is a bhikkhu endowed with mindfulness and clear comprehension (of what he does).

18. Contentment
(Santosa)

215. Great King! How does a bhikkhu become contented? In this matter, Great King, a bhikkhu remains contented with robes just sufficient to protect his body and with food just sufficient to sustain him. Wherever he goes, that bhikkhu carries with him all his requisites. Wherever a winged bird flies, it flies only with its burden of wings. In the same way, Great King, a bhikkhu is content with his robes that protect his body, and his food that sustains him. Wherever he goes, he carries with him all his requisites. Thus, Great King, does a bhikkhu remain contented.

19. Dissociation from the Five Hindrances
(Nivaranappahana)

216. Then that bhikkhu, endowed with this noble group of moral precepts, this noble self-control, this noble mindfulness and clear comprehension, and this noble contentedness, chooses for habitation a lonely spot in the woods or at the foot of a tree or on a hillside, or in a gully, or in a mountain cave, or in a cemetery, or in a thicket, or on an open plain, or on a heap of straw. Returning from the round of alms and having had his meal, he sits down cross-legged and upright and establishes mindfulness in meditation.

217. Then that bhikkhu dissociates himself from coveting the world (of the five aggregates of clinging) and abides with his mind free from covetousness, thereby cleansing himself of ccvetousness altogether. He dissociates himself from ill will, abides with his mind free from ill will and develops goodwill towards all living beings, there by cleansing himself of ill will altogether. He dissociates himself from sloth and torpor, abides with his mind free from sloth and torpor, with clear perception, mindfulness and comprehension, thereby cleansing himself of sloth and torpor altogether. He dissociates himself from restlessness and worry and abides with his mind in calmness and develops inner peace, thereby cleansing himself of restlessness and worry altogether. He dissociates himself from doubt, abides with his mind free from doubt, and does not waver (in his faith) in meritorious dhammas, thereby cleansing himself of doubt altogether.

218. Great King! Take the example of a man who did business with borrowed money. As his business prospered he paid up his old debts. He also acquired profit with which he could maintain his family. Then it occurred to him thus: 'Formerly 1 worked on borrowed money. Now my business has prospered. I have paid up my old debts and acquired profit with which I have been able to maintain my family.' Thereby that man became pleased and delighted.

219. Great King! Take another example, that of a man afflicted with disease, suffering pain, extremely ill, having no appetite and losing physical strength. Afterwards he recovered from that disease. His appetite returned and he gained physical strength. Then it occurred to him thus: 'Formerly I was afflicted with disease, suffering pain, extremely ill, losing appetite and physical strength. Now I have recovered from that disease. My appetite has returned and I have regained physical strength.' Thereby that man became pleased and delighted.

220. Great King! Take another example, that of a man confined in a prison. Later he was released from prison, safe and sound and without losing any property.Then it occurred to him thus: prison, safe and sound and without losing any property.

'Formerly I was confined in a prison. Now I have been released from prison, safe and sound and without losing any property.

Thereby that man became pleased and delighted.

221. Great King! Take another example, that of a slave who was not his own master hut subject to another, unable to go about as he pleased. Later he was freed from slavery, becoming once again his own master, not subject to another and able to go about as he pleased. Then it occurred to him thus:

'Formerly I was a slave, not my own master but subject to another, unable to go about as I pleased. Now I have been freed from slavery, becoming once again my own master, not subject to another and able to go about as I please.'

Thereby that man was pleased and delighted.

222. Great King! Take another example, that of a man who, carrying all his treasures and wealth, travelled on a long, difficult and dangerous journey where the threat of famine was present. Later he completed that difficult journey and arrived at a village where there was peace and security. Then it occurred to him thus:

'Formerly I travelled on a long, difficult and dangerous journey where the threat of famine was present. Now I have completed the difficult journey and arrived at the village where there is peace and security.'

Thereby that man was pleased and delighted.

223, Great King! A bhikkhu clearly sees the five hindrances which have not been got rid of from within himself as indebtedness, disease, imprisonment, enslavement, and a difficult and dangerous journey.

224. Great King! A bhikkhu clearly sees the discarding of the five hindrances from within himself as gaining freedom from indebted ness, disease, imprisonment, enslavement and as reaching a place of safety.

225. That bhikkhu who clearly sees that the five hindrances have been got rid of becomes gladdened. This gladness gives rise to piti (delightful satisfaction) and the delighted mind of the bhikkhu generates calm. The bhikkhu who enjoys calmness experiences sukha (bliss). Being blissful, his mind gains concentration.

20. The First Jhana as an Advantage for a Samana

226. Being detached from sensual pleasures and demeritorious factors, that bhikkhu achieves and remains in the first jhana which is accompanied by vitakka (initial application of the mind), vicara (sustained application of the mind), and which has piti (delightful satisfaction) and sukha (bliss), born of detachment from the hindrances (nivarana). He soaks, drenches, permeates and suffuses his body with piti and sukha, born of detachment from the hindrances. There is no place in his body not suffused with pill and sukha, born of detachment from the hindrances.

227. Great King! Take the example of a skilful bath attendant or his assistant, who strews bath powder in a brass dish, sprinkles and sprinkles water on it and makes it into a mass. Water, permeating through that mass to form a cake soaked with unguents inside and out, is unable to seep out.

Great King! In the same way, that bhikkhu soaks, drenches, permeates and suffuses his body with piti and sukha, born of detachment from the hindrances. There is no place in his body not suffused with piti and sukha, born of detachment from the hindrances.

Great King! This is an advantage of being a samana, personally experienced, which is more pleasing and higher than the advantages previously mentioned.

21. The Second Jhana as an Advantage for a Samana

228. And again. Great King, having got rid of vitakka and vicara, the bhikkhu achieves and remains in the second jhana, with internal tranquillity, with enhancement of one-pointedness of Concentration, devoid of vitakka and vicara, but with piti and sukha born of Concentration. He soaks, drenches, permeates and suffuses his body with piti and sukha born of Concentration. There is no place in his body not suffused with piti and sukha born of Concentration.

229. Great King! Take the example of a deep lake with water welling up from a spring below. There is no inlet from either east or south or west or north. It does not rain heavily or regularly there. And yet cool water which wells up from that spring soaks, drenches, permeates and suffuses the lake and there is no place in that lake not suffused with it.

Great King! In the same way, that bhikkhu soaks, drenches, permeates and suffuses his body with piti and sukha born of Concentration. There is no place in his body not suffused with them.

Great King! This also is an advantage of being a samana, personally experienced, which is more pleasing and higher than the advantages previously mentioned.

22. The Third Jhana as an Advantage for a Samana

230. And again, Great King, having been detached from piti, that bhikkhu dwells in equanimity with mindfulness and clear comprehension and experiences sukha in mind and body. He achieves and remains in the third jhana, that which causes a person who attains it to be praised by the Ariyas as one who has equanimity and mindfulness, one who abides in sukha. He soaks, drenches, permeates and suffuses his body with sukha detached from piti. There is no place in his body not suffused with sukha detached from piti.

231. Great King! Take the example of uppala, paduma and pundarika lotuses in a pond where they grow in the water and thrive in it. Even when they are submerged, they thrive under water, soaked, drenched, permeated and suffused from root to apex with cool water. There is no spot in the whole plant of an uppala, paduma or pundarika lotus not suffused with it.

Great King! In the same way, that bhikkhu soaks, drenches, permeates and suffuses his body with sukha detached from piti; and there is no place in his body which is not suffused with sukha detached from piti.

Great King! This also is an advantage of being a samana, personally experienced, which is more pleasing and higher than the advantages previously mentioned.

23. The Fourth Jhana as an Advantage for a Samana

232. And again, Great King, by dispelling both pain and pleasure, and by the previous disappearance of sadness and gladness, that bhikkhu achieves and remains in the fourth jhana, without pain and pleasure, a state of equanimity and absolute purity of mindfulness. That bhikkhu abides in the purity of mind suffused in his body. There is no place in his body which is not suffused with it.

233. Great King! Take the example of a man sitting wrapped up head to foot in a white cloth leaving no place on his whole body uncovered by it.*

Great King! in the same way, that bhikkhu abides in the purity of mind suffused in his body and there is no place in his body which is not suffused with it.

Great King! This also is an advantage of being a samana, personally experienced, which is more pleasing and higher than the advantages previously mentioned.

* The Commentary says that in this comparison, body warmth, generated by the body which is covered from head to foot, is meant.

24: (i) Insight-Knowledge
Vipassana Nana

234. When the concentrated mind has thus become purified, pellucid, unblemished, undefiled, malleable, pliable, firm and imperturbable, that bhikkhu directs and inclines his mind to Insight-Knowledge (vipassana nana). Then he understands thus:

"This body of mine is corporeal. It is made up of four great primary elements. It is born of the union of mother and father. It is nurtured on rice and bread. It has the nature of impermanence, breaking up and disintegrating. It needs the tender care of rubbing and massaging. My consciousness too depends on it and is attached to it."

235. Great King! Take the example of a veluriya gem, brilliant, genuine, eight-faceted, well-cut, crystal-clear, transparent, flawless, and complete with all good characteristics. It is threaded with a dark-blue, or yellow, or red, or white, or light yellow string. A man of good eyesight, placing it on his palm, might reflect thus:

"This gem is brilliant, genuine, eight-faceted, well-cut, crystal-clear, transparent, flawless, and complete with all good characteristics. I see that it is threaded with a dark-blue, or yellow, or red, or white, or light yellow string."

In the same way, Great King, when the concentrated mind has thus become purified, pellucid, unblemished, undefiled, malleable, pliable, firm and imperturbable, that bhikkhu directs and inclines his mind to Insight-Knowledge. Then he understands thus:

"This body of mine is corporeal. it is made up of four great primary elements. It is born of the union of mother and father. It is nurtured on rice and bread. It has the nature of impermanence, breaking up and disintegrating. It needs the tender care of rubbing and massaging. My consciousness too depends on it and is attached to it."

Great King, this also is an advantage of being a samana, personally experienced, which is more pleasing and higher than the advantages previously mentioned.

25. (ii) Power of Creation by Mind
Manomayiddhi Nana*

236. When the concentrated mind has thus become purified, pellucid, unblemished, undefiled, malleable, pliable, firm and imperturbable, that bhikkhu directs and inclines his mind to the power of creating a mentally-generated body. That bhikkhu produces another body out of his own and creates a mentally-generated form complete with all organs, major or minor, without any defective faculties.

237. Great King! Take the example of a man pulling out the core of a stalk of munja grass from its sheath. It might occur to him thus:

"This is the core and this the sheath. The core is one thing and the sheath is another. It is from the sheath that the core has been pulled out."

Great King, take another example. A man might pull out a sword from its scabbard. It might occur to him thus:

"This is the sword and this the scabbard. The sword is one thing and the scabbard is another. it is from the scabbard that the sword has been pulled out."

Great King, take yet another example. A man might (mentally) take out a snake from its slough, it might occur to him thus:

"This is the snake and this its slough. The snake is one thing and its slough is another. It is from the slough that the snake has been pulled out."

In the same way, Great King, when the concentrated mind has thus become purified, pellucid, unblemished, undefiled, malleable, pliable, firm and imperturbable, that bhikkhu directs and inclines his mind to the power of creating a mentally-generated body. He produces another body out of his own and creates a mentally-generated form complete with all organs, major or minor, without any defective faculties.

Great King, this also is an advantage of being a samana, personally experienced, which is more pleasing and higher than the advantages previously mentioned.
1. Nana: Lit., knowledge; here, it means power arising out of that knowledge.

26. (iii) Psychic Power
Iddhivida Nana

238. When the concentrated mind has thus become purified, pellucid, unblemished, undefiled, malleable, pliable, firm and imperturbable, that bhikkhu directs and inclines his mind to supernormal psychic powers. He wields the various kinds of supernormal powers: being one, he becomes many; and from being many, he becomes one; he makes himself visible or invisible; he passes unhindered through walls, enclosures, and mountains, as though going through space; he plunges into or out of the earth as though plunging into or out of water; he walks on water as though walking on earth; he travels in space cross-legged as if he were a winged bird; he touches and strokes the moon and the sun which are so mighty and powerful; and he gains mastery over his body (to reach) even up to the world of the Brahmas.

239. Great King! To give an example, it is as if a skilled potter or his apprentice could make out of well-kneaded clay various kinds of pots as desired.

Great King! To give another example, it is as if a skilled ivory carver or his apprentice could make out of duly-prepared elephant tusk various kinds of ivory-carvings as desired.

Great King! To give still another example, it is as if a skilled goldsmith or his apprentice could make out of duly-prepared gold gold-ornaments as desired.

In the same way, Great King, when the concentrated mind has thus become purified, pellucid, unblemished, undefiled, malleable, pliable, firm and imperturbable, that bhikkhu directs and inclines his mind to super-normal psychic powers. He wields the various kinds of surer normal powers: being one, he becomes many; and from being many, he becomes one; he makes himself visible or invisible; he passes unhindered through walls, enclosures, and mountains, as though going through space; he plunges into or out of the earth as though plunging into or out of water; he walks on water as though walking on earth; he travels in space cross-legged as if he were a winged bird; he touches and strokes the moon and the sun which are so mighty and powerful; and he gains mastery over his body (to reach) even up to the world of the Brahmas.

Great King, this also is an advantage of being a samana, personally experienced, which is more pleasing and higher than the advantages previously mentioned.

27. (iv) Divine Power of Hearing
Dibbasota Nana

240. When the concentrated mind has thus become purified, pellucid, unblemished, undefiled, malleable, pliable, firm and imperturbable, that bhikkhu directs and inclines his mind to (the gaining of) the hearing power like the divine hearing-power. With the divine hearing-power which is extremely clear, surpassing the hearing-power of men, he hears both kinds of sounds, of devas and men, whether far or near.

241. Great King! Take the example of a man travelling on a highway who might hear the sounds of a big drum, a cylindrical drum, a conch, a small drum and a kettledrum. It might occur to him thus:

"This is the sound of the big drum; this is the sound of the cylindrical drum; this is the sound of the conch; this is the sound of the small drum; and this is the sound of the kettledrum."

In the same way, Great King, when the concentrated mind has thus become purified, pellucid, unblemished, undefiled, malleable, pliable, firm and imperturbable, that bhikkhu directs and inclines his mind to (the gaining of) the hearing-power like the divine hearing-power. With the divine hearing-power which is extremely clear, surpassing the hearing-power of men, he hears both kinds of sounds, of devas and men, whether far or near.

Great King, this also is an advantage of being a samana, personally experienced, which is more pleasing and higher than the advantages previously mentioned.

28. (v) Knowledge of the Minds of Others
Cetopariya Nana

242. When the concentrated mind has thus become purified, pellucid, unblemished, undefiled, malleable, pliable, firm and imperturbable, that bhikkhu directs and inclines his mind to (discriminating) knowledge of the minds of others (Cetopariya Nana). He discriminatively knows with his own mind the minds of other beings or individuals. He knows the lustful mind as such, and he knows the mind devoid of lust as such; he knows the angry mind as such, and he knows the mind devoid of anger as such; he knows the bewildered mind* as such, and he knows the mind devoid of bewilderment as such; he knows the constricted mind as such, and he knows the distracted mind as such; he knows the exalted mind (to be met with beyond the domain of sensual pleasure) as such, and he knows the unexalted mind (of the domain of sensual pleasure) as such; he knows the inferior mind (of the three mundane planes) as such, and he knows the superior mind (of the supra-mundane plane) as such; he knows the concentrated mind as such, and he knows the unconcentrated mind as such; he knows the mind liberated (from defilements) as such, and he knows the unliberated mind as such.

243. Great King! Take the example of a young lass or a young lad, who is wont lo beautifying her self or himself, looking at herself or himself in a clear mirror or in a bowl of clear water. Then she or he would at once recognize in her or his face blemishes or, if they are absent, the absence of blemishes.

In the same way, Great King, when the concentrated mind has thus become purified, pellucid, unblemished, undefiled, malleable, pliable,' firm and imperturbable, that bhikkhu directs and inclines his mind to (discriminating) knowledge of the minds of others. He discriminatively knows with his own mind the minds of other beings or individuals. He knows the lustful mind as such, and he knows the mind devoid of lust as such; he knows the angry mind as such. and he knows the mind devoid of anger as such; he knows the bewildered mind as such, and he knows the mind devoid of bewilderment as such; he knows the constricted mind as such, and he knows the distracted mind as such; he knows the exalted mind (to be met with beyond the domain of sensual pleasure) as such, and he knows the unexalted mind (of the domain of sensual pleasure) as such; he knows the inferior mind (of the three mundane planes) as such, and he knows the superior mind (of the supra-mundane plane) as such; he knows the concentrated mind as such, and he knows the unconcentrated mind as such; he knows the mind liberated (from defilements) as such, and he knows the unliberated mind as such.

Great King. this also is an advantage of being a samana, personally experienced, which is more pleasing and higher than the advantages previously mentioned.

* Bewilderment consists of ignorance: of, or misconception of, the Four Noble Truths.

29. (vi) Knowledge of Past Existences
Pubbenivasanussati Nana

244. When the concentrated mind has thus become purified, pellucid, unblemished, undefiled, malleable, pliable, firm and imperturbable, that bhikkhu directs and inclines his mind to knowledge of past existences (Pubbenivasanussati Nana). He recollects many and varied existences of the past. And what does he recollect?

"He recollects one past existence, or two, or three, or four, or five, or ten, or twenty, or thirty. or forty, or fifty, or a hundred, a thousand, a hundred thousand existences, or many hundred, many thousand, many hundred thousand existences, or existences in many cycles of dissolution, or in many cycles of development, or in many cycles of the rounds of dissolution and development, in this way: 'In that past existence I was known by such a name. I was born into such a family. I was of such an appearance. I was thus nourished. I enjoyed pleasure thus. I suffered pain thus. My life-span was such. I died in that existence. Then I was born in another existence. In that (new) existence, I was known by such a name. I was born into such a family. I was of such an appearance. I was thus nourished. I enjoyed pleasure thus. I suffered pain thus. My life-span was such. I died in that existence. Then I was born in this existence.' In this way he recollects many and varied past existences, together with their characteristics and related facts (such as names and clans)."

245. Great King! Take the example of a man travelling to another village, then to another village, and then returning home later. Then it might occur to him thus:

"I went out from my village to such and such a village, in that village, I stood thus, I sat thus, I spoke thus, and I remained silent thus. Then I again set out from that village to still another village. In that (second) village, I stood thus, I sat thus, I spoke thus, and I remained silent thus. Then I returned to my own village."

In the same way, Great King, when the concentrated mind has thus become purified, pellucid, unblemished, undefiled. malleable, pliable, firm and imperturbable, that bhikkhu directs and inclines his mind to knowledge of past existences. He recollects his many and varied existences of the past. And what does he recollect?

He recollects one past existence, or two, or three, or four, or five, or ten, or twenty, or thirty. or forty, or fifty, or a hundred, a thousand, a hundred thousand existences, or many hundred, many thousand, many hundred thousand existences, or existences in many cycles of dissolution, or in many cycles of development, or in many cycles of the rounds of dissolution and development, in this way: 'In that past existence I was known by such a name. I was born into such a family. I was of such an appearance. I was thus nourished. I enjoyed pleasure thus. I suffered pain thus. My life-span was such. I died in that existence. Then I was born in another existence. In that (new) existence, I was known by such a name. I was born into such a family. I was of such an appearance. I was thus nourished. I enjoyed pleasure thus. I suffered pain thus. My life-span was such. I died in that existence. Then I was born in this existence.' In this way he recollects many and varied past existences, t ogether with their characteristics and related facts (such as names and clans).

Great King, this also is an advantage of being a samana, personally experienced, which is more pleasing and higher than the advantages previously mentioned.

30. (vii) Divine Power of Sight
Dibbacakkhu Nana

246. When the concentrated mind has thus be come purified, pellucid, unblemished, undefiled, malleable, pliable, firm and imperturbable, that bhikkhu directs and inclines his mind to knowledge of the passing away and arising of beings (cutupapata nana). With the divine power of sight, which is extremely clear, surpassing the sight of men, he sees beings in the process of passing away and also of arising, inferior or superior beings, beautiful or ugly beings, beings with good or bad destinations. He knows beings arising according to their own kamma-actions.

"Friends! These beings were full of evil committed bodily, verbally and mentally. They maligned the Ariyas, held wrong views and performed actions according to these wrong views. After death and dissolution of their bodies, they reappeared in wretched destinations (duggati), in miserable existences (apaya), states of ruin (vinipata), realms of continuous suffering (niraya). But, friends, there were also beings who were endowed with goodness done bodily, verbally and mentally. They did not malign the Ariyas, held right views and performed actions according to right views. After death and dissolution of their bodies, they reappeared in good destinations, the happy world of the devas."

Thus, with the divine power of sight which is extremely clear, surpassing the sight of men, the bhikkhu sees beings in the process of passing away and also of arising, inferior or superior beings, beautiful or ugly beings, beings with good or bad destinations and beings arising according to their own kamma-actions.

247. Great King! Take the example of a man with good eyesight, standing above, in a pinnacled mansion situated at a crossroads, who could see men entering a house, or coming out of a house, strolling about on the street or sitting at the crossroads. It might occur to him thus:

"These men are entering a house. Those are coming out of a house. These men are strolling about on the street. Those are sitting at the cross roads."

In the same way, Great King, when the concentrated mind has thus become purified, pellucid, unblemished, undefiled, malleable, pliable, firm and imperturbable, that bhikkhu directs and inclines his mind to knowledge of the passing away and arising of beings. With the divine power of sight, which is extremely clear, surpassing the sight of men, he sees beings in the process of passing away and also of arising, inferior or superior beings, beautiful or ugly beings, beings with good or bad destinations, and beings arising according to their own kamma-actions.

Friends! These beings were full of evil committed bodily, verbally and mentally. They maligned the Ariyas, held wrong views and performed actions according to these wrong views. After death and dissolution of their bodies, they reappeared in wretched destinations (duggati), in miserable existences (apaya), states of ruin (vinipata), realms of continuous suffering (niraya). But, friends, there were also beings who were endowed with goodness done bodily, verbally and mentally. They did not malign the Ariyas, held right views and performed actions according to right views. After death and dissolution of their bodies, they reappeared in good destinations, the happy world of the devas.

Thus, with the divine power of sight which is extremely clear, surpassing the sight of men, the bhikkhu sees beings in the process of passing away and also of arising, inferior or superior beings, beautiful or ugly beings, beings with good or bad destinations and beings arising according to their own kamma-actions.

Great King, this also is an advantage of being a samana, personally experienced, which is more pleasing and higher than the advantages previously mentioned.

31. (viii) Knowledge of Extinction of Moral Intoxicants
Asavakkhaya Nana

248. When the concentrated mind has thus become purified, pellucid, unblemished, undefiled, malleable, pliable, firm and imperturbable, that bhikkhu directs and inclines his mind to knowledge of the extinction of moral intoxicants (asavakkhaya Nana).

Then he truly understands dukkha* as it really is, the cause of dukkha as it really is, the cessation of dukkha as it really is, and the way leading to the cessation of dukkha as it really is. He also truly understands the asavas as they really are, the cause of the asavasas it really is, the cessation of the asavasas it really is, and the way leading to the cessation of the asavasas it really is. The mind of the bhikkhu who thus knows and thus sees is liberated from the moral intoxicant of sensual pleasures and sensuous realms (kamasava), the moral intoxicant of hankering after (better) existence (bhavasava), and the moral intoxicant of ignorance (of the Four Noble Truths) (avijjasava). When thus liberated, the knowledge of liberation arises (in him). He knows that rebirth is no mere (for him), that he has lived the Life of Purity, that what he has to do (for the realization of Magga) has been done, and that he has nothing more to do (for such realization).**

249. Great King! Take the example of a man, with good eyesight, standing at the edge of a clear and transparent lake in a mountain glen. He sees oysters, mussels, pebbles, broken pottery, and shoals of fish moving about or just lying still. It might occur to him thus:

"This lake is clear and transparent. In it there are oysters, mussels, pebbles, broken pottery and shoals of fish either moving about or just lying still."

In the same way, Great King, when the concentrated mind has thus become purified, pellucid, unblemished, undefiled, malleable, pliable, firm and imperturbable, that bhikkhu directs and inclines his mind to the extinction of moral defilements.

Then he truly understands dukkha* as it really is, the cause of dukkha as it really is, the cessation of dukkha as it really is, and the way leading to the cessation of dukkha as it really is. He also truly understands the asavasas they really are, the cause of the asavasas it really is, the cessation of the asavasas it really is, and the way leading to the cessation of the asavas as it really is. The mind of the bhikkhu who thus knows and thus sees is liberated from the moral intoxicant of sensual pleasures and sensuous realms (kamasava), the moral intoxicant of hankering after (better) existence (bhavasava), and the moral intoxicant of ignorance (of the Four Noble Truths) (avijjasava). When thus liberated, the knowledge of liberation arises (in him). He knows that rebirth is no mere (for him), that he has lived the Life of Purity, that what he has to do (for the realization of Magga)has been done, and that he has nothing more to do (for such realization).**

Great King, this also is an advantage of being a samana, personally experienced, which is more pleasing and higher than the advantages previously mentioned.

Great King, there is no other advantage of being a samana, personally experienced, more pleasing and higher than this which one can see for oneself.

* dukkha: See Appendix A 6

** Another interpretation in the Commentary of this last phrase "na param itthattaya," is that there will be no further existence.

32. Ajatasattu Becomes a Lay Disciple

250. When the Bhagava had thus spoken, King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, addressed him thus:

"Venerable Sir! Excellent (is the dhamma)! Venerable Sir! Excellent (is the dhamma)! Just as, Venerable Sir, one turns up what lies upside down, just as one uncovers what lies covered, just as one shows the way to another who is lost, just as one holds up a lamp in the darkness for those with eyes to see visible objects, even so have you revealed the dhamma to me in various ways. Venerable Sir, I take refuge in the Buddha; I take refuge in the Dhamma and I take refuge in the Samgha. Please take me as a lay disciple from now on till the end of my life. I was overwhelmed by (i.e., I have committed) a misdeed, being foolish, bewildered and unwise. For the sake of gaining sovereign power, I put my father to death, who ruled with righteousness and kingly virtue. Venerable Sir, I request the Bhagava to accept this admission of my guilt so that I can restrain myself in the future."

251. Great King! True indeed that you were overwhelmed by a misdeed, being foolish, bewildered and unwise. You have put to death your father who ruled with righteousness and kingly virtue. But now, as you have realized your guilt and admitted it to make amends, we accept your admission. Great King! Realizing one's guilt, making amends and abstaining from such misdeed in the future means enhancement according to the injunctions of the Ariyas.

252. After the Bhagava had spoken, King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, addressed him thus:

"Venerable Sir! Let me take leave of you. We have many things to do."

"Great King! You may go when you wish." (Lit., now you know the time.)

Then King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, pleased and delighted with what the Bhagava said, rose from his seat, paid obeisance to him and departed from his presence.

253. Soon after the departure of King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Vedehi, the Bhagava said to the bhikkhus:

"Bhikkhus! This king has ruined himself. He has destroyed himself (i.e.. destroyed all his potentialities for the Path). Bhikkhus! Had not this king put his father to death, who ruled with righteous ness and kingly virtue. there would have arisen in him, here and now, the clear and undefiled eye of the dhamma (Sotapatti magga)." Thus said the Bhagava. And the bhikkhus were delighted and they rejoiced in his words.